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Ankylosing Spondylitis

Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a condition that primarily affects the spine. It causes inflammation of the joints in the neck, back, and pelvis, leading to stiffness and pain. Sacroiliac joints, which connect the base of the spine to the pelvis, are often affected in AS. Other joints like hips and shoulders may also be involved.

The most common symptoms of this condition include pain and stiffness in the back, buttocks, or neck. These symptoms typically worsen after rest, such as in the early morning, but are relieved through exercise. Additionally, individuals with this condition may experience pain in their tendons, which connect muscles to bones, or ligaments, which connect bones to each other. This pain may be felt in the front of the chest, back of the heel, or underneath the foot.

In addition to the main symptoms, an individual may also experience fatigue, loss of appetite, and inflammation of the eyes. In severe cases, fusion of the spine’s joints can result in loss of flexibility and mobility.

Currently, there is no cure for ankylosing spondylitis (AS). However, treatment has advanced significantly with new medications that are highly effective in managing the condition.

Treatment for AS usually involves:

  • Stretching exercises (including hydrotherapy), to keep the spine flexible and improve posture
  • medicines, such as:
    – analgesics (pain relievers, such as paracetamol)
    – non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)
    – corticosteroid medicines or injections
    – disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs) – biological DMARDs.

If you think you might have ankylosing spondylitis (AS), it’s crucial to see a rheumatologist for an accurate diagnosis and suitable treatment. Your rheumatologist will adjust your treatment according to your symptoms and the extent of your condition. Proper management can help individuals suffering from AS to enjoy their lives to the fullest.


Vasculitis is a group of rare diseases that cause inflammation of blood vessels. There are many types of vasculitis, such as giant cell arteritis (GCA), microscopic polyangiitis (MPA), granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA), eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA or Churg-Strauss), Behçet’s, as well as others. Vasculitis causes poor blood flow to organ tissues such as the lungs, kidneys, skin, eyes, or nerves.

Vasculitis can be caused by autoimmune disease, medications, cancer or viral infections like hepatitis B or C.

Symptoms of vasculitis include red spots (purpura), nodules, ulcers on the skin, headaches with vision changes, cough, shortness of breath, and numbness or weakness in the extremities. Patients may also experience joint pain, fatigue, or nose and sinus issues. Vasculitis can seriously affect the kidneys and may not show symptoms initially. It is diagnosed by a rheumatologist based on physical exam findings, lab tests for autoantibodies and organ function, tissue biopsy, and sometimes imaging to detect blood vessel abnormalities.

Your Rheumatologist will customize your treatment according to your symptoms and condition severity. Treatments include steroid medications and immunosuppressants. When dealing with aggressive vasculitis, it is necessary to use potent medications such as Rituximab and Cyclophosphamide. Some patients with severe disease may undergo plasma exchange (plasmapheresis) or intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) treatments.


Gout is a type of arthritis that occurs due to the accumulation of excessive uric acid in the body. It often results in sudden pain and inflammation in a single joint, usually the big toe or other joints in the feet. Uric acid is a natural substance in the blood that is filtered out by the kidneys. However, if the levels become too high or the kidneys are unable to eliminate enough of it, urate crystals may form and settle in a joint, leading to pain, swelling, and redness. Men are more prone to gout than women. A diet high in purines, excessive alcohol consumption, and medications such as diuretics and conditions like dehydration can increase the likelihood of developing gout.

There are several treatments for gout, which can include medications to reduce inflammation, lower uric acid levels in the blood, or aid the kidneys in removing excess uric acid. During an attack, pain and swelling can be alleviated through the use of Colchicine or Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), as well as Glucocorticoid (steroid) pills or injections directly into the joint.

Gout treatment aims to lower uric acid levels to dissolve or prevent crystals. Allopurinol (Xyloprim) and Febuxostat (Adenuric) inhibit uric acid production, while Probenecid helps the kidneys excrete uric acid.

Other Autoimmune Conditions

Lorem Ipsum is simply dummy text of the printing and typesetting industry. Lorem Ipsum has been the industry’s standard dummy text ever since the 1500s, when an unknown printer took a galley of type and scrambled it to make a type specimen book.

Lorem Ipsum is simply dummy text of the printing and typesetting industry. Lorem Ipsum has been the industry’s standard dummy text ever since the 1500s, when an unknown printer took a galley of type and scrambled it to make a type specimen book.

Lorem Ipsum is simply dummy text of the printing and typesetting industry. Lorem Ipsum has been the industry’s standard dummy text ever since the 1500s

Psoriatic Arthritis

The exact cause of psoriatic arthritis is unknown. Genetics, the immune system, and environmental factors, such as infections, may contribute to this type of arthritis.

What are the symptoms?

Psoriatic arthritis is a condition that can affect any joint in the body, and the symptoms can differ from person to person. It can develop gradually with mild symptoms or appear suddenly and be severe. The most common symptoms include pain, swelling, and stiffness in one or more joints, pain and stiffness in the buttocks, lower back, or neck (also known as spondylitis, which means inflammation of the spine), pain in tendons, such as at the back of the heel or sole of the foot (tendons are the strong cords that attach muscles to bones), changes in nails, such as thickening, colour change, or separation from the skin, and pain and redness in the eyes.

What is the treatment?

Although there is no cure, treatment for psoriatic arthritis has dramatically improved with new medications that effectively manage the condition.

The treatment for arthritis depends on the level of pain, swelling or stiffness experienced by the individual and aims to reduce pain and inflammation while preventing long-term joint damage. Mild arthritis flares can be treated with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as ibuprofen or naproxen sodium. Corticosteroid injections can also help alleviate pain and swelling in the affected joint. If NSAIDs do not alleviate arthritis symptoms, your rheumatologist may prescribe disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) like sulfasalazine, methotrexate, or leflunomide.


If you are suffering from severe arthritis, there are a range of biologic medications that you can try, including adalimumab, etanercept, and infliximab. Additionally, for psoriatic arthritis, there are other biologics available such as secukinumab, ixekizumab, ustekinumab, and guselkumab. Oral medications like tofacitinib, upadacitinib and apremilast have also been shown to be effective. Your rheumatologist will assess your condition and recommend the most appropriate treatment option for you.

Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE)

Lupus is a medical condition caused by an overactive immune system that can attack different parts of the body. For some individuals, lupus may only impact the skin and/or joints, while in others it may affect the lungs, kidneys, blood vessels, brain, or other parts of the body.

The most common symptoms of the condition include joint pain and swelling, skin rashes that worsen when exposed to sunlight, mouth or nose sores, and anaemia. Patients with lupus can have non-specific symptoms including fever, fatigue, weight loss, and hair loss. 

The treatment goals are to suppress the overactive immune system, ultimately induce remission and prevent permanent organ damage. The medications required depend on the symptoms and the organs affected. Options include hydroxychloroquine (Plaquenil), steroids and immunosuppressants. 

Rheumatoid Arthritis

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a medical condition where the immune system mistakenly attacks the lining of the joints, triggering inflammation and pain. This condition belongs to a group of autoimmune diseases that affect the joints. In RA, the smaller joints in the hands and feet are usually the first to be affected, but larger joints such as the hips and knees can also suffer damage. Normally, the immune system fights off infections to keep our body healthy, but in RA, it starts attacking our own healthy tissues, leading to joint damage and swelling.

What are the symptoms?

RA symptoms may vary from person to person. The most common symptoms of RA include joint pain, swelling, and tenderness to touch, as well as stiffness in the joints, especially in the morning. Additionally, RA often affects the same joints on both sides of the body, making the symptoms symmetrical.

With early diagnosis and appropriate treatment, individuals with RA can lead fulfilling and active lives. While there is no cure for RA at present, treatment options have improved significantly in the last two decades, with new medications proving to be highly beneficial for those in the early stages of the condition.

Anna Arthritis Care specialises in diagnosing and managing Rheumatoid Arthritis and other autoimmune diseases. Our highly skilled and experienced rheumatologist, who is dedicated to providing the latest and most effective treatments, helps patients achieve their best outcomes.


Are you experiencing symptoms of RA, or have you already been diagnosed with RA and need professional care? Anna Arthritis Care is here to help. You can schedule a consultation with Dr. Sateesh to discuss your condition and develop a personalized treatment plan that caters to your needs. Our goal is to manage your symptoms effectively and enhance your quality of life.


Osteoarthritis (OA) is a common joint disease affecting millions of Australians.

Osteoarthritis is a condition that affects the entire joint, including the cartilage, joint lining, ligaments, and bone. When the cartilage, which acts as a cushion on the ends of bones, starts to break down, the bones can rub against each other, leading to swelling, pain, and stiffness. In addition, bony growths can develop around the edge of the joint, causing knobby swelling. It is common for the tissues surrounding the joint to become inflamed as well.

Osteoarthritis commonly affects the knees, hips, fingers, and big toe.

Common Treatment:

The goal of osteoarthritis treatment is to reduce pain and improve function.

Currently, there is no cure for OA, but there are treatments that can effectively control symptoms.

Exercise can reduce joint pain, improve muscle strength, and decrease the chance of disability caused by OA. Weight loss can also be beneficial.

Medications: Over-the-counter pain relievers such as Paracetamol and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) can be used to alleviate pain and reduce inflammation.

Joint injections of corticosteroids (also known as cortisone shots) or hyaluronic acid lubricant (Synvisc) can provide months of relief from OA pain. Surgical treatment may be an option for severe cases.

Adaptive devices such as braces, walking sticks, and shoe insoles can help with some of the symptoms.

Working with a physiotherapist or occupational therapist can help learn safe exercises for OA and properly use assistive devices.